World Blood Donor Day - July 14th 2017
14th June is the birthday of Karl Landsteiner who is considered to be the founder of modern blood transfusion. He discovered ABO blood groups in 1901. Rhesus factor was discovered by Alexander.S.Wiener.
Importance of blood transfusionBlood transfusion helps patinets suffering from life threatening conditions to live longer and with higher quality of life. Blood transfusion supports complex medical and surgical procedures and has a life saving role in maternal and perinatal care.
Which all are the blood components that are commonly transfused?Blood transfusion uses whole blood as well as components such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors and platelets.
When does a patient requires red blood cell transfusion in normal conditions?When hemoglobin level is falling below 10g/dL or Hematocrit falls below 30%, blood transfusion is usually considered as a must.
A short note on blood groups
A blood group is said to be positive or negative depending on presence of Rh factor.
The image given below helps you to know what all antigen and antibodies are present in each blood group.
The image given below helps you to understand possible matches in blood transfusion between donor and reciever using ABO and Rh System.
What is blood group typing and cross matching (Compatability Test)?
Before a recipient receives a transfusion, compatibility testing between donor and recipient blood must be done. The first step before a transfusion is given is to type and screen the recipient's blood. Typing of recipient's blood determines the ABO and Rh status. The sample is then screened for any alloantibodies that may react with donor blood. It takes about 45 minutes to complete (depending on the method used).
One Common Doubt - Can a recipient get infected with HIV duet to blood transfusion?
If the blood donor has donated his blood during the window period of HIV, yes there is a chance for the recipient to get infected with HIV virus.
Who can give blood and how often?
Selection criteria for blood donor is the following
1, Age between 18 and 60 years
2. Hemoglobin : not less than 12.5 g/dL
3. Pulse : between 50 and 100/minute with no irregularities
4. Blood Pressure : Systolic 90 : 180 mm Hg and Diastolic 50 : 100 mm Hg
5. Temperature : Normal (oral temperature not exceeding 37.5 degree C)
6. Body weight : not less than 46 Kg.
"Men can give blood every 12 weeks where as woman can give blood in every 16 weeks."
A blood donor is not eligible for blood donation if any of the following health condition is persisting.
- Past one year : treated for Rabies, had Jaundice, tested positive for Hepatitis B virus or received Hepatitis B immune globulin.
- Past six months : a tattoo, ear or skin piercing or acupuncture, received blood or blood products, serious illness or major surgery, contact with a person with hepatitis or yellow jaundice.
- Past three months : donated blood or been treated for Malaria.
- Past one month : had any immunizations.
- Past 72 hours : taken any antibiotics or any other medication
- Past 12 hours : taken alcoholic beverages
- Past 7 hours : had dental work or taken Aspirin
= Present : suffering from cough, Flu or sore throat, cold, pregnancy or breast feeding
- Free from Diabetes, not suffering from chest pain, heart disease or high BP, cancer, blood clotting problem or blood disease, unexplained fever, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, enlarged lymph nodes in armpits, neck or groin, white patches in the mouth etc
- Lived in the Islands of West Africa, Haiti or Africa since 1970
- Ever had TB, bronchial asthma or allergic disorder, liver disease, kidney disease, fits or fainting, blue or purple spots on the skin or mucous membranes, received human pituitary : growth hormones etc.
People Who Should Not Give BloodPregnant or lactating women, or those who have recently had an abortion.
Persons who are on steroids, hormonal supplements or certain specified medication.
Persons with multiple sexual partners or those who are addicted to drugs.
Persons who have had an attack of infection like jaundice, rubella, typhoid or malaria.
Persons who have undergone surgery in the previous six months.
Persons who have consumed alcohol in the 12 hours prior to donation.
Women should avoid donation during their menstruating period.
Those who have undergone various vaccinations should avoid donation for the corresponding period specified below:
Type of Vaccine
The period in which donation should be avoided.
Hepatitis B - 6 months
Live vaccines - 2 weeks
Killed vaccines - 48 Hours
Rabies - 1 year
Persons with any systemic disease like heart disease, kidney disease, liver problems, blood disorders or asthma should NOT donate blood.
Persons suffering from infections transmitted through transfusions like HIV, Hepatitis, Syphilis etc should NOT donate blood.
Hopes this article throws light towards Blood Donation, Blood Grouping and people who can be blood donors as well as who cannot be blood donors too.
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